This chapter was revealed in Medina and consists of 11 verses. It explains how humans are ungrateful to their Lord and hanker after material good. Since they are cognizant of this trait, it will be an argument against them on the Day of Judgment and they will be held accountable for it.

The chapter was revealed in Medina, as one can see from the oaths in it, such as: By the snorting chargers (100:1). These oaths apparently refer to the horses of the cavalry, as we shall discuss below. Jihad was ordained only after the Prophet’s migration to Medina. This view is supported by Shia narrations from the Imams, saying that the chapter was revealed about Imam ʿAlī and his army in the Battle of Dhāt al-Salāsil. Some Sunni narrations also support this, which will be discussed in our examination of narrations, God-willing.


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