The Qur'an says: O humankind! You are the ones who stand in need of God, and God - He is the Ever-Sufficient (35:15). This verse confirms that "Need" is one of the first things we observe in ourselves, as well as in all other things, including our faculties, our functions and the outside world. Thus we intuitively arrive at God Who is a source that fulfills our need and removes our deficiency.
History shows that the belief in some origin - from whom all things emanate - is a necessary requirement of the human fitrah (innate and primary indisposition) and if one does not arrive at this origin, it is considered to be a deviation from one's fitrah. This deviation is like when someone gets accustomed to a toxic substance. Initially, the physical nature of the substance is repulsive but the person persists until the substance becomes acceptable and thus enjoyable.
We learn from the basic principles of theology that the existence of all things traces to God because He is the absolute holder of kingdom and ownership. Therefore, He is the Source Whom all beings depend on to fulfill their need and complete their perfection. To Him belongs any quality of perfection that we find in existence such as life, power, knowledge, hearing, sight, sustenance, mercy, might, etc.
This is how we can arrive at His excellent Names and attributes of God. For example: He is the Ever-Living - therefore He gives life; He is the Sustainer - therefore He gives sustenance; He is the Ever-Hearing - therefore He gives hearing; He is the All-Knowing - therefore He gives knowledge.
The above shows how we can prove the divine names and attributes in a straightforward way.
Reference: Al-Mizan English Volume 16, pp 246-247, first edition, Tawheed Institute Australia Ltd, 2018.